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Lesson 3.6
Empirical and Molecular Formulas
This lecture begins by outlining the differences between empirical and molecular formulas.
Example problems involve finding empirical and molecular formulas from the percent composition
of elements in a compound and from a combustion analyses. As with all lecture formatted learning
activates in our package, this lesson comes with a slide show presentation, a slide-by-slide
discussion outline for teachers, students' notes, a worksheet providing students with the
opportunity to further explore the concepts and problem types covered, and a complete solution
key for the worksheet.
Lesson 4.8
Valence Bond Theory and Hybrid Orbital Theory
This lecture opens with a brief overview of valence bond theory and its deficiencies in regard to
molecular shape. It then goes on to describe how the shapes predicted by VSEPR theory result
from the promotion of electrons and subsequent hybridization of orbitals. The lesson closes with
an examination of the role that hybrid orbital play in double and triple bonds. We invite you to
examine the slide show presentation, discussion outline for teachers, students' notes, worksheet,
and worksheet solution key for this lesson.
Lesson 6.6
Colligative Properties of Solutions
This lecture examines the concepts and calculations associated with the four colligative properties
of solutions. It also explores ideal and non-ideal solutions as well as the differences between
volatile and non-volatile solutes. We invite you to examine the slide show presentation, discussion
outline for teachers, students' notes, worksheet, and worksheet solution key for this lesson.
Lesson 15.1
Reaction Rates and Rate Laws
This lecture opens by examining the concept of rate and how rate changes as a system
approaches equilibrium. It then discusses rates laws and reaction order with respect to individual
reactants and the overall chemical reaction. The lesson closes with some example problems that
unfold one step at a time. We invite you to examine the slide show presentation, discussion outline
for teachers, students' notes, worksheet, and worksheet solution key for this lesson.
Lesson 17.1
Naming Alkanes
This lecture opens with a brief history of the classification of organic compounds. It then outlines
the IUPAC system for naming alkanes and the structural isomers of alkanes, including
cycloalkanes. We invite you to examine the slide show presentation, discussion outline for
teachers, students' notes, worksheet, and worksheet solution key for this lesson.
Students' Lecture Notes for some of the Ninety-Three Lessons
1. Atomic Theory and Periodicity (Students' Lecture Notes)
1.1 The History of Atomic Theory
1.2 Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
1.3 Waves
1.4 Quantum Theory
1.5 Atomic Emission Spectrum
1.6 DeBroglie Wave Equation
1.7 Quantum Numbers
1.8 Electron Configuration and Orbital Diagrams
1.9 Periodicity
2. Nomenclature (Students' Lecture Notes)
2.1 Naming Ionic Compounds, Ionic Formulas, and Hydrates
2.2 Naming Covalent Compounds and Molecular Formulas
2.3 Naming Acids
3. Quantitative Chemistry (Students' Lecture Notes)
3.1 Molecular Weight and Mass Percent
3.2 The Mole
3.3 Mole to Mole Problems
3.4 Mass to Mass Problems
3.5 Limiting Reactant Problems
3.6 Empirical and Molecular Formulas
4. Chemical Bonding (Students' Lecture Notes)
4.1 Ionic and Covalent Bonding
4.2 Lewis Structures
4.3 Exceptions to the Octet Rule
4.4 Formal Charge
4.5 Resonance Structures
4.6 VSEPR I
4.7 VSEPR II
4.8 Valence Bond Theory and Hybrid Orbital Theory
4.9 Polar and Non-Polar Molecule
5. Intermolecular Forces (Students' Lecture Notes)
5.1 Types of Intermolecular Forces
6. Solutions (Students' Lecture Notes)
6.1 Types of Solutions
6.2 Expressing Concentration
6.3 Solubility and Precipitation Reactions
6.4 Factors Affecting Solubility, Solubility Curves and Supersaturated Solutions
6.5 Factors Affecting the Solubility of Gases
6.6 Colligative Properties
7. Redox Reactions (Students' Lecture Notes)
7.1 Redox Reactions and Oxidation Numbers
7.2 Balancing Redox Reactions in Acidic and Basic Solutions
7.3 The Activity Series and Types of Redox Reactions
8. Thermodynamics (Students' Lecture Notes)
8.1 Endothermic / Exothermic Reactions and Enthalpy
8.2 Average Bond Enthalpy
8.3 Calorimetry
8.4 Hess' Law
8.5 Enthalpy of Formation
8.6 Enthalpy of Vaporization and Enthalpy of Fusion
8.7 Entropy
8.8 Free Energy
9. Equilibrium (Students' Lecture Notes)
9.1 Dynamic Equilibrium and the Equilibrium Expression
9.2 The Pressure Constant and Equilibrium Position
9.3 Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations and Partial Pressures
9.4 The Reaction Quotient
9.5 Le Chatelier's Principle
9.6 Manipulating Equilibrium Constants
9.7 The Solubility Product Constant and Predicting Precipitates
9.8 Free Energy and Equilibrium
10. Gases (Students' Lecture Notes)
10.1 Pressure, Boyle's Law, Charles Law, and Combined Gas Law
10.2 Avogadro's Principle and STP
10.3 Ideal Gas Law
10.4 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure and Collecting Gas over Water
10.5 Mole Fractions and Partial Pressures
10.6 Average Kinetic Energy and Speed of a Gas
10.7 Effusion and Diffusion
10.8 Real vs. Ideal Gases
11. Solids (Students' Lecture Notes)
11.1 Unit Cells, Molecular Solids, Covalent Network Solids, and Metallic Solids
12. Phase Diagrams (Students' Lecture Notes)
12.1 Phase Diagrams
13. Electrochemistry (Students' Lecture Notes)
13.1 Voltaic Cells and Standard Cell Potentials
13.2 Spontaneous Redox Reactions and Free Energy
13.3 Nernst Equation and Concentration Cells
13.4 Electrolytic Cells
14. Acids and Bases (Students' Lecture Notes)
14.1 Defining Acids and Bases
14.2 Strengths of Acids and Bases
14.3 Acid and Base Dissociation Constants
14.4 The pH of Strong Acids and Bases
14.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acids
14.6 Calculation the pH of Weak Bases
14.7 Reactions of Acids and Bases
14.8 Soluble Salts and pH
14.9 The Common Ion Effect
14.10 Buffered Solutions
14.11 Solubility and pH
14.12 Complex Ion Formation
14.13 Acid Base Titrations
15. Kinetics (Students' Lecture Notes)
15.1 Reaction Rates, Order of Reactions, and Rate Laws
15.2 Integrated Rate Laws
15.3 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates and Activation Energy
15.4 Reactions Mechanisms and Catalysis
16. Nuclear Chemistry (Students' Lecture Notes)
16.1 Modes of Nuclear Decay
16.2 Configurations for Nuclear Stability
16.3 Half Life
16.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
17. Organic Chemistry (Students' Lecture Notes)
17.1 Naming Alkanes and Structural Isomerism
17.2 Naming Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds
17.3 Naming Functional Groups
17.4 Reactions of Hydrocarbons
17.5 Reactions of Functional Groups